Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Pharmacokinetics of an intravenous and oral dose of enrofloxacin in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum)

Leiberich, M; Krebber, R; Hewetson, M; Marais, J; Naidoo, V


M Leiberich

R Krebber

M Hewetson

J Marais

V Naidoo


South Africa currently loses over 1000 white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) each year to poaching incidents, and numbers of severely injured victims found alive have increased dramatically. However, little is known about the antimicrobial treatment of wounds in rhinoceros. This study explores the applicability of enrofloxacin for rhinoceros through the use of pharmacokinetic‐pharmacodynamic modelling. The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin were evaluated in five white rhinoceros after intravenous (i.v.) and after successive i.v. and oral administration of 12.5 mg/kg enrofloxacin. After i.v. administration, the half‐life, area under the curve (AUCtot), clearance and the volume of distribution were 12.41 ± 2.62 hr, 64.5 ± 14.44 μg ml−1 hr−1, 0.19 ± 0.04 L h−1 kg−1, and 2.09 ± 0.48 L/kg, respectively. Ciprofloxacin reached 26.42 ± 0.05% of the enrofloxacin plasma concentration. After combined i.v. and oral enrofloxacin administration oral bioavailability was 33.30 ± 38.33%. After i.v. enrofloxacin administration, the efficacy marker AUC24: MIC exceeded the recommended ratio of 125 against bacteria with an MIC of 0.5 μg/mL. Subsequent intravenous and oral enrofloxacin administration resulted in a low Cmax: MIC ratio of 3.1. The results suggest that intravenous administration of injectable enrofloxacin could be a useful drug with bactericidal properties in rhinoceros. However, the maintenance of the drug plasma concentration at a bactericidal level through additional per os administration of 10% oral solution of enrofloxacin indicated for the use in chickens, turkeys and rabbits does not seem feasible.


Leiberich, M., Krebber, R., Hewetson, M., Marais, J., & Naidoo, V. (2019). Pharmacokinetics of an intravenous and oral dose of enrofloxacin in white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 42(3), 346-354.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 19, 2018
Publication Date Jan 7, 2019
Deposit Date Jun 1, 2019
Print ISSN 0140-7783
Publisher American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Volume 42
Issue 3
Pages 346-354
Public URL