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Disease risk analysis and post-release health surveillance for a reintroduction programme: the pool frog Pelophylax lessonae

Sainsbury, A W; Chang, Y M; Ågren, E; Vaughan-Higgins, R J; McGill, I S; Molenaar, F; Peniche, G; Foster, J


A W Sainsbury

Y M Chang

E Ågren

R J Vaughan-Higgins

I S McGill

F Molenaar

G Peniche

J Foster


There are risks from disease in undertaking wild animal reintroduction programmes. Methods of disease risk analysis have been advocated to assess and mitigate these risks, and post?release health and disease surveillance can be used to assess the effectiveness of the disease risk analysis, but results for a reintroduction programme have not to date been recorded. We carried out a disease risk analysis for the reintroduction of pool frogs (Pelophylax lessonae) to England, using information gained from the literature and from diagnostic testing of Swedish pool frogs and native amphibians. Ranavirus and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis were considered high?risk disease threats for pool frogs at the destination site. Quarantine was used to manage risks from disease due to these two agents at the reintroduction site: the quarantine barrier surrounded the reintroduced pool frogs. Post?release health surveillance was carried out through regular health examinations of amphibians in the field at the reintroduction site and collection and examination of dead amphibians. No significant health or disease problems were detected, but the detection rate of dead amphibians was very low. Methods to detect a higher proportion of dead reintroduced animals and closely related species are required to better assess the effects of reintroduction on health and disease.


Sainsbury, A. W., Chang, Y. M., Ågren, E., Vaughan-Higgins, R. J., McGill, I. S., Molenaar, F., …Foster, J. (2017). Disease risk analysis and post-release health surveillance for a reintroduction programme: the pool frog Pelophylax lessonae. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 64(5), 1530-1548.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 1, 2016
Publication Date Oct 1, 2017
Deposit Date May 7, 2016
Publicly Available Date Nov 21, 2020
Journal Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Print ISSN 1865-1674
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 64
Issue 5
Pages 1530-1548
Public URL


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