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Diagnostics for schistosomiasis in Africa and Arabia: a review of present options in control and future needs for elimination

Stothard, J R; Stanton, M C; Bustinduy, A L; Sousa-Figueiredo, J C; van Dam, G J; Betson, M; Waterhouse, D; Ward, S; Allan, F; Hassan, A A; Al-Helal, M A; Memish, Z A; Rollinson, D


J R Stothard

M C Stanton

A L Bustinduy

J C Sousa-Figueiredo

G J van Dam

M Betson

D Waterhouse

S Ward

F Allan

A A Hassan

M A Al-Helal

Z A Memish

D Rollinson


Within the World Health Organization 2012–2020 roadmap for control and elimination of schistosomiasis, the scale-up of mass drug administration with praziquantel is set to change the epidemiological landscape across Africa and Arabia. Central in measuring progress is renewed emphasis upon diagnostics which operate at individual, community and environmental levels by assessing reductions in disease, infections and parasite transmission. However, a fundamental tension is revealed between levels for present diagnostic tools, and methods applied in control settings are not necessarily adequate for application in elimination scenarios. Indeed navigating the transition from control to elimination needs careful consideration and planning. In the present context of control, we review current options for diagnosis of schistosomiasis at different levels, highlighting several strengths and weaknesses therein. Future challenges in elimination are raised and we propose that more cost-effective diagnostics and clinical staging algorithms are needed. Using the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as a contemporary example, embedding new diagnostic methods within the primary care health system is discussed with reference to both urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis.


Stothard, J. R., Stanton, M. C., Bustinduy, A. L., Sousa-Figueiredo, J. C., van Dam, G. J., Betson, M., …Rollinson, D. (in press). Diagnostics for schistosomiasis in Africa and Arabia: a review of present options in control and future needs for elimination. Parasitology, 141(14), 1947-1961.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 16, 2014
Deposit Date Nov 11, 2014
Journal Parasitology
Print ISSN 0031-1820
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 141
Issue 14
Pages 1947-1961
Public URL
Additional Information Corporate Creators : Leiden Uni Medical Center, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, LSHTM, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia, Natural History Museum, St Thomas Hosp

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