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Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of chikungunya, dengue, and Zika in eight districts in Tanzania

Mwanyika, GO; Sindato, C; Rugarabamu, S; Rumisha, SF; Karimuribo, ED; Misinzo, G; Rweyemamu, MM; Hamid, MMA; Haider, N; Vairo, F; Kock, R; Mboera, LEG


GO Mwanyika

C Sindato

S Rugarabamu

SF Rumisha

ED Karimuribo

G Misinzo

MM Rweyemamu

MMA Hamid

N Haider

F Vairo

R Kock

LEG Mboera


Background: This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of chikungunya (CHIKV), dengue (DENV), and Zika (ZIKV) viruses in Tanzania. Methods: The study covered the districts of Buhigwe, Kalambo, Kilindi, Kinondoni, Kondoa, Kyela, Mvomero, and Ukerewe in Tanzania. Blood samples were collected from individuals recruited from households and healthcare facilities. An ELISA was used to screen for immunoglobulin G antibodies against CHIKV, DENV, and ZIKV. Results: A total of 1818 participants (median age 34 years) were recruited. The overall CHIKV, DENV, and ZIKV seroprevalence rates were 28.0%, 16.1%, and 6.8%, respectively. CHIKV prevalence was highest in Buhigwe (46.8%), DENV in Kinondoni (43.8%), and ZIKV in Ukerewe (10.6%) and Mvomero (10.6%). Increasing age and frequent mosquito bites were significantly associated with CHIKV and DENV seropositivity ( P < 0.05). Having piped water or the presence of stagnant water around the home ( P < 0.01) were associated with higher odds of DENV seropositivity. Fever was significantly associated with increased odds of CHIKV seropositivity ( P < 0.001). Visiting mines had higher odds of ZIKV seropositivity ( P < 0.05). Conclusions: These findings indicate that DENV, CHIKV, and ZIKV are circulating in diverse ecological zones of Tanzania. There is a need to strengthen the control of mosquito-borne viral diseases in Tanzania. (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Infectious Diseases. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( )


Mwanyika, G., Sindato, C., Rugarabamu, S., Rumisha, S., Karimuribo, E., Misinzo, G., …Mboera, L. (2021). Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of chikungunya, dengue, and Zika in eight districts in Tanzania. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 111, 271-280.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 17, 2021
Publication Date 2021
Deposit Date Dec 22, 2021
Publicly Available Date Dec 22, 2021
Print ISSN 1201-9712
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 111
Pages 271-280
Keywords Chikungunya; Dengue; Zika; Seroprevalence; Risk factors; Tanzania; FEBRILE PATIENTS; VIRUS; OUTBREAK
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