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The effect of needle reuse on piglet skin puncture force

Gibson, Troy; Blackie, Nicola; Owen, Kathryn


Troy Gibson

Nicola Blackie

Kathryn Owen


The study investigated whether repeat-use of needles used to inject piglets with iron, influences the force required to puncture into piglet cadaver skin. Pig units were surveyed on needle reuse and injection practices, these findings informed subsequent laboratory-based experiments on needle puncture force into piglet cadaver tissues. A 21G 5/8” needle was reported as the most used nee-dle type (67.7%, n=31), with 80.6% reporting needle reuse; 38.7% changed the needle between lit-ters or earlier if damaged, 16.1% every three litters and 22.5% only when changing the needle when it felt blunt or damaged, after each injection session or when changing the bottle of iron so-lution. There was a significant difference in puncture force between first- and 36th-use (p0.999 and p=0.8313, respectively). Electron microscopy imaging showed appreciable damage to the needle tip after 12 uses. Repeat-use of needles in piglet cadavers increased the force of needle puncture compared to first-time use. When extrapolated to live animals, the use of blunt needles has the potential to cause pain and distress.


Gibson, T., Blackie, N., & Owen, K. (2022). The effect of needle reuse on piglet skin puncture force. Veterinary Sciences,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 10, 2022
Online Publication Date Feb 18, 2022
Publication Date Feb 18, 2022
Deposit Date Jan 7, 2022
Publicly Available Date Mar 10, 2022
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Public URL
Additional Information Had deadline to receive the free open access, hence it was submitted without pre submission acceptance.


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