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Use of multivariate analysis to evaluate antigenic relationships between US BVDV vaccine strains and non-US genetically divergent isolates

Mosena, ACS; Falkenberg, SM; Ma, H; Casas, E; Dassanayake, RP; Booth, R; De Mia, GM; Schweizer, M; Canal, CW; Neill, JD


ACS Mosena

SM Falkenberg

H Ma

E Casas

RP Dassanayake

R Booth

GM De Mia

M Schweizer

CW Canal

JD Neill


Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) comprises two species, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. But given the genetic diversity among pestiviruses, at least 22 subgenotypes are described for BVDV-1 and 3-4 for BVDV-2. Genetic characterization is generally accomplished through complete or partial sequencing and phylogeny, but it is not a reliable method to define antigenic relationships. The traditional method for evaluating antigenic relationships between pestivirus isolates is the virus neutralization (VN) assay, but interpretation of the data to define antigenic relatedness can be difficult to discern for BVDV isolates within the same BVDV species. Data from this study utilized a multivariate analysis for visualization of VN results to analyze the antigenic relationships between US vaccine strains and field isolates from Switzerland, Italy, Brazil, and the UK. Polyclonal sera were generated against six BVDV strains currently contained in vaccine formulations, and each serum was used in VNs to measure the titers against seven vaccine strains (including the six homologous strains) and 23 BVDV field isolates. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using VN titers, and results were interpreted from PCA clustering within the PCA dendrogram and scatter plot. The results demonstrated clustering patterns among various isolates suggesting antigenic relatedness. As expected, the BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 isolates did not cluster together and had the greatest spatial distribution. Notably, a number of clusters representing antigenically related BVDV-1 subgroups contain isolates of different subgenotypes. The multivariate analysis may be a method to better characterize antigenic relationships among BVDV isolates that belong to the same BVDV species and do not have distinct antigenic differences. This might be an invaluable tool to ameliorate the composition of current vaccines, which might well be important for the success of any BVDV control program that includes vaccination in its scheme.


Mosena, A., Falkenberg, S., Ma, H., Casas, E., Dassanayake, R., Booth, R., …Neill, J. (2022). Use of multivariate analysis to evaluate antigenic relationships between US BVDV vaccine strains and non-US genetically divergent isolates. Journal of Virological Methods, 299,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 8, 2021
Publication Date 2022
Deposit Date Feb 4, 2022
Publicly Available Date Feb 4, 2022
Print ISSN 0166-0934
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 299
Keywords Bovine viral diarrhea virus; Antigenic characterization; Cross neutralization; Principal component analysis; Virus neutralization; VIRAL-DIARRHEA-VIRUS; CATTLE; IMPACT; CALVES; RECOMBINATION; SUBGENOTYPES; VARIABILITY; PREVALENCE; ANTIBODIES; DIVERSITY
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