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Potential innate immunity-related markers of endometrial receptivity and recurrent implantation failure (RIF)

Basatvat, S; Russell, JM; Saare, M; Thurston, LM; Salumets, A; Fazeli, A


S Basatvat

JM Russell

M Saare

LM Thurston

A Salumets

A Fazeli


The successful implantation of the embryo into a receptive endometrium is essential for the establishment of a viable pregnancy while recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is a real challenge in assisted reproduction. The maternal innate immune system, specifically the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), are involved in maintaining immunity in the female reproductive tract (FRT) required for fertility. In this study, we aimed to investigate the importance of innate immunity-related gene expression in the regulation of human fertility and as a prediction of potential outcome of in vitro fertilization - embryo transfer (IVF-ET), thus, we assessed the gene expression levels of TLR signalling molecules using quantitative real-time PCR between endometrial biopsies of healthy fertile women, and the patients experiencing RIF. Interestingly, our results showed that, TRIB2 and TLR9 genes were differentially expressed between the endometrial biopsies of healthy women and those with RIF. However, comparing expression levels of same genes between pre-receptive and receptive healthy endometrial biopsies showed different genes (ICAM1, NFKBIA, VCAM1, LIF, VEGFB, TLR5) had significantly altered expression, suggesting their involvement in endometrial receptivity. Thus, further investigations will enable us to better understand the role of these genes in the biology of FRT and as a possible target for the improvement of infertility treatments and/or development of non-hormonal contraception. (c) 2021 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn.


Basatvat, S., Russell, J., Saare, M., Thurston, L., Salumets, A., & Fazeli, A. (2021). Potential innate immunity-related markers of endometrial receptivity and recurrent implantation failure (RIF). Reproductive Biology, 21(4),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 2, 2021
Publication Date Dec 1, 2021
Deposit Date Aug 25, 2023
Print ISSN 1642-431X
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 21
Issue 4
Keywords Innate immune system; Embryo implantation; Recurrent implantation failure; Toll-like receptors; Endometrial receptivity; LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR; TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS; ADHESION MOLECULES; TROPHOBLAST ADHESION; EXPRESSION; CELLS; ACTIVATION; INTERLEUKIN-