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Atypical Candidiasis of the Gnathotheca in a Lesser Flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor)

Rayment, KM; Garner, MM; Drees, R; Francis, MM; Rose, JB; Sim, RR


KM Rayment

MM Garner

R Drees

MM Francis

JB Rose

RR Sim


An approximately 38-year-old captive male lesser flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor) was presented with a mass involving the right ventral gnathotheca. The mass was surgically excised after which the flamingo was treated with parenteral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and antibiotic drugs. Histological analysis identified an abscess with intralesional fungal organisms. Culture and polymerase chain reaction sequencing identified the fungal organisms within the lesion as Candida albicans. Treatment with oral itraconazole was initiated 23 days after initial surgical excision; however, the flamingo continued to lose weight while being treated, and died after 10 days of antifungal therapy. Necropsy, histologic examination, and culture confirmed the persistence of a mycotic abscess that infiltrated the mandibular bone and was associated with C albicans.


Rayment, K., Garner, M., Drees, R., Francis, M., Rose, J., & Sim, R. (2022). Atypical Candidiasis of the Gnathotheca in a Lesser Flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 35(4), 457-463.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 14, 2022
Publication Date Jan 28, 2022
Deposit Date Jul 25, 2023
Print ISSN 1938-2871
Publisher Association of Avian Veterinarians
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 35
Issue 4
Pages 457-463