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A systematic review of the methods used to analyse the economic impact of endemic foot-and-mouth disease

Compston, Polly; Limon, Georgina; Hasler, Barbara


Polly Compston

Georgina Limon

Barbara Hasler


Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has large economic consequences in livestock systems, which must be
robustly assessed to support disease control policy. This study described and assessed methods used
within economic analyses of FMD and its control in endemic contexts. A systematic literature search
was conducted in six academic search engines. Studies were included if they applied an economic
analysis to a context with endemic FMD, producing a result articulated as a monetary figure. Data
collected from each article included country of study, animal population, geographical level of
analysis, time horizon and type of economic analysis. Each paper was scored using a quality
assessment tool containing a checklist of 42 reporting criteria. Sixty-four articles were included, from
12,087 identified in the searches, describing results for 26 countries. Over half of the articles (56%)
described economic impact of FMD retrospectively, often only accounting for a selection of direct
costs at farm or household level. Median quality score calculated was 41% (range 8%-86%). Methods
were generally poorly reported, confirming previously described difficulties in using published data to
evaluate economic impact of endemic FMD. Few papers included disaggregation of public and private
costs, or benefits, of FMD control, or accounted for economic or social influences of scale in
vaccination programmes. Many of the studies included had gaps in both premise and methodology.
This risks inefficient resource allocation if these analyses are used when planning and budgeting FMD
control programmes in endemic contexts


Compston, P., Limon, G., & Hasler, B. (2022). A systematic review of the methods used to analyse the economic impact of endemic foot-and-mouth disease. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 14, 2022
Publication Date Apr 20, 2022
Deposit Date Aug 3, 2022
Publicly Available Date Aug 3, 2022
Print ISSN 1865-1674
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords foot-and mouth disease; endemic disease; economic methodology; livestock; vaccination


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