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Toxoplasma gondii: An Underestimated Threat?

Milne, G; Webster, J P; Walker, M


G Milne

J P Webster

M Walker


Traditionally, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii has been thought of as relevant to public health primarily within the context of congenital toxoplasmosis or postnatally acquired disease in immunocompromised patients. However, latent T. gondii infection has been increasingly associated with a wide variety of neuropsychiatric disorders and, more recently, causal frameworks for these epidemiological associations have been proposed. We present assimilated evidence on the associations between T. gondii and various human neuropsychiatric disorders and outline how these may be explained within a unifying causal framework. We argue that the occult effects of latent T. gondii infection likely outweigh the recognised overt morbidity caused by toxoplasmosis, substantially raising the public health importance of this parasite. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.]


Milne, G., Webster, J. P., & Walker, M. (2020). Toxoplasma gondii: An Underestimated Threat?. Trends in Parasitology,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 21, 2020
Publication Date Sep 14, 2020
Deposit Date Oct 19, 2020
Publicly Available Date Oct 19, 2020
Journal Trends in parasitology
Print ISSN 1471-4922
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Toxoplasma gondii, disorder, human behaviour, neuropsychiatric, toxoplasmosis
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