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Incidence and risk factors for surgical glove perforation in small animal ophthalmic surgery

Massidda, P A; Diaz, J; Tetas Pont, R; Grundon, R; Corletto, F; Blacklock, B


P A Massidda

J Diaz

R Tetas Pont

R Grundon

F Corletto

B Blacklock


Objective: To determine the incidence of perforation of surgical gloves and identify
associated risk factors that contribute to glove perforation in small animal ophthalmic
Study design: Observational cohort study.
Sample population: Surgical gloves (n = 2000) collected following 765 small animal
ophthalmic procedures.
Methods: All the gloves were tested for perforation at the end of the procedure using
a water leak test. The potential risk factors for glove perforation were recorded, and
associations between these risk factors and perforation were explored using univariable
(Fisher's exact test) and mixed effect logistic regression analysis. Results were
considered significant if P < .05.
Results: Glove perforation was detected in 6% of procedures. Glove perforation was
1.97 (95% CI: 0.98-4.22) times more likely in extraocular than in intraocular surgeries
(7.3% vs 3.9%; P = .0462). The incidence of perforations was not statistically different
between main and assistant surgeon (P = .86). No significant association was
found between the risk of glove perforation and duration of the procedure (P = .13).
Perforation of the nondominant hand was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.38-4.98) times more likely
than the dominant hand (74% vs 26%; P = .0028). Only 22% of the perforations were
detected intraoperatively. Multivariable analysis identified only extraocular surgery
as a risk factor for perforations.
Conclusions: There is a low incidence of glove perforation in small animal ophthalmic
surgery, but extra care of the nondominant hand is required, especially during
extraocular procedures.


Massidda, P. A., Diaz, J., Tetas Pont, R., Grundon, R., Corletto, F., & Blacklock, B. (2020). Incidence and risk factors for surgical glove perforation in small animal ophthalmic surgery. Veterinary Ophthalmology,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 26, 2020
Publication Date Jul 20, 2020
Deposit Date Aug 17, 2020
Publicly Available Date Jul 21, 2021
Journal Veterinary Ophthalmology
Print ISSN 1463-5216
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Public URL
Publisher URL


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