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Hypertension, retinopathy, and acute kidney injury in dogs: A prospective study

Cole, L P; Jepson, R; Dawson, C; Humm, K


L P Cole

R Jepson

C Dawson

K Humm



Systemic hypertension (SH) is a potential complication of acute kidney injury (AKI) in dogs.


To describe the prevalence of SH and hypertensive retinopathy in dogs with AKI, to investigate the relationship between SH and severity of AKI and to assess possible factors associated with SH.


Fifty‐two dogs with AKI.


Prospective observational study of dogs presenting to a tertiary referral center that fulfilled the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) guidelines for the diagnosis of AKI. Systolic blood pressure measurement, urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR), urine output, presence of hypertensive retinopathy and fluid overload (FO), survival to discharge and duration of hospitalization were subsequently assessed. The prevalence of SH was calculated and the relationship between SH and recorded factors was examined by nonparametric statistics.


The prevalence of SH (≥160 mm Hg) on admission or during hospitalization was 75% (39/52) and in 56% (22/39) of cases this was severe (≥180 mm Hg). Sixteen percent (7/43) of dogs had evidence of hypertensive retinopathy and 77% (24/31) dogs had UPCR >0.5. Forty‐two percent (22/52) dogs had FO on admission or during hospitalization. There was no association between SH and IRIS AKI grade, oligo/anuria, survival to discharge, duration of hospitalization or proteinuria. Dogs with FO on presentation were more likely to be hypertensive at admission compared to dogs without FO (P = .02). Dogs that did not survive to discharge were more likely to have FO (P = .007).

Conclusions and Clinical Importance

Systemic hypertension is common in dogs with AKI. Systemic hypertension might be associated with FO, which itself is associated with nonsurvival. Monitoring for SH and FO is therefore warranted in dogs with AKI.


Cole, L. P., Jepson, R., Dawson, C., & Humm, K. (2020). Hypertension, retinopathy, and acute kidney injury in dogs: A prospective study. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 13, 2020
Publication Date Jul 17, 2020
Deposit Date Sep 7, 2020
Publicly Available Date Sep 7, 2020
Journal Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Print ISSN 0891-6640
Publisher Wiley Open Access
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Public URL
Publisher URL


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