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Evaluation of vaccine delivery systems for inducing long-lived antibody responses to Dermanyssus gallinae antigen in laying hens

Price, D R G; Küster, T; Øines, Ø; Margaret Oliver, E; Bartley, K; Nunn, F; Barbero, J F L; Pritchard, J; Karp-Tatham, E; Hauge, H; Blake, D P; Tomley, F M; Nisbet, A J


D R G Price

T Küster

Ø Øines

E Margaret Oliver

K Bartley

F Nunn

J F L Barbero

J Pritchard

E Karp-Tatham

H Hauge

D P Blake

F M Tomley

A J Nisbet


Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite, is a global threat to the commercial egg-laying industry. Control of D. gallinae is difficult, with only a limited number of effective pesticides and non-chemical treatments available. Here we characterise the candidate vaccine antigen D. gallinae cathepsin D-1 (Dg-CatD-1) and demonstrate that purified refolded recombinant Dg-Cat-D1 (rDg-CatD-1) is an active aspartyl proteinase which digests haemoglobin with a pH optimum of pH 4. Soluble protein extracts from D. gallinae also have haemoglobinase activity, with a pH optimum comparable to the recombinant protein and both proteinase activities were inhibited by the aspartyl proteinase inhibitor Pepstatin A. Enzyme activity and the ubiquitous localization of Dg-CatD-1 protein in sections of adult female mites is consistent with Dg-CatD-1 being a lysosomal proteinase. Using Dg-CatD-1 as a model vaccine antigen, we compared vaccine delivery methods in laying hens via vaccination with: i) purified rDg-CatD-1 with Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant; ii) recombinant DNA vaccines for expression of rDg-CatD-1 and iii) transgenic coccidial parasite Eimeria tenella expressing rDg-CatD-1. In two independent trials, only birds vaccinated with rDg-CatD-1 with Montanide™ ISA 71 VG produced a strong and long-lasting serum anti-rDg-Cat-D1 IgY response, which was significantly higher than control birds vaccinated with adjuvant only. Furthermore, we showed that egg laying rates of D. gallinae mites fed on birds vaccinated with rDg-CatD-1 in Montanide™ ISA 71 VG was reduced significantly compared with mites fed on unvaccinated birds.


Price, D. R. G., Küster, T., Øines, Ø., Margaret Oliver, E., Bartley, K., Nunn, F., …Nisbet, A. J. (2019). Evaluation of vaccine delivery systems for inducing long-lived antibody responses to Dermanyssus gallinae antigen in laying hens. Avian Pathology, 48, S60-S74.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 15, 2019
Publication Date Apr 29, 2019
Deposit Date May 10, 2019
Publicly Available Date Aug 16, 2019
Journal Avian Pathology
Print ISSN 0307-9457
Publisher Taylor and Francis
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 48
Pages S60-S74
Public URL


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