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Methods of olfactory ensheathing cell harvesting from the olfactory mucosa in dogs

Ito, D; Carwardine, D; Prager, J; Wong, L F; Kitagawa, M; Jeffery, N; Granger, N


D Ito

D Carwardine

J Prager

L F Wong

M Kitagawa

N Jeffery

N Granger


Olfactory ensheathing cells are thought to support regeneration and remyelination of damaged axons when transplanted into spinal cord injuries. Following transplantation, improved locomotion has been detected in many laboratory models and in dogs with naturally-occurring spinal cord injury; safety trials in humans have also been completed. For widespread clinical implementation, it will be necessary to derive large numbers of these cells from an accessible and, preferably, autologous, source making olfactory mucosa a good candidate. Here, we compared the yield of olfactory ensheathing cells from the olfactory mucosa using 3 different techniques: rhinotomy, frontal sinus keyhole approach and rhinoscopy. From canine clinical cases with spinal cord injury, 27 biopsies were obtained by rhinotomy, 7 by a keyhole approach and 1 with rhinoscopy. Biopsy via rhinoscopy was also tested in 13 cadavers and 7 living normal dogs. After 21 days of cell culture, the proportions and populations of p75-positive (presumed to be olfactory ensheathing) cells obtained by the keyhole approach and rhinoscopy were similar (~4.5 x 106 p75-positive cells; ~70% of the total cell population), but fewer were obtained by frontal sinus rhinotomy. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea was observed in one dog and emphysema in 3 dogs following rhinotomy. Blepharitis occurred in one dog after the keyhole approach. All three biopsy methods appear to be safe for harvesting a suitable number of olfactory ensheathing cells from the olfactory mucosa for transplantation within the spinal cord but each technique has specific advantages and drawbacks.


Ito, D., Carwardine, D., Prager, J., Wong, L. F., Kitagawa, M., Jeffery, N., & Granger, N. (in press). Methods of olfactory ensheathing cell harvesting from the olfactory mucosa in dogs. PLoS ONE, 14(3), e0213252.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 18, 2019
Deposit Date Mar 12, 2019
Publicly Available Date Mar 12, 2019
Journal PLoS One
Publisher Public Library of Science
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 14
Issue 3
Pages e0213252
Public URL


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