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Molecular mechanisms of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death

Galluzzi, L; Vitale, I; Aaronson, S A; Abrams, J M; Adam, D; Agostinis, P; Alnemri, E S; Altucci, L; Amelio, I; Andrews, D W; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, M; Antonov, A V; Arama, E; Baehrecke, E H; Barlev, N A; Bazan, N G; Bernassola, F; Bertran, M J M; Bianchi, K; Blagosklonny, M V; Blomgren, K; Borner, C; Boya, P; Brenner, C; Campanella, M; Others


L Galluzzi

I Vitale

S A Aaronson

J M Abrams

D Adam

P Agostinis

E S Alnemri

L Altucci

I Amelio

D W Andrews

M Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli

A V Antonov

E Arama

E H Baehrecke

N A Barlev

N G Bazan

F Bernassola

M J M Bertran

K Bianchi

M V Blagosklonny

K Blomgren

C Borner

P Boya

C Brenner

M Campanella



Over the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Since the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple cell death pathways are unveiled, we propose an updated classification of cell death subroutines focusing on mechanistic and essential (as opposed to correlative and dispensable) aspects of the process. As we provide molecularly oriented definitions of terms including intrinsic apoptosis, extrinsic apoptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-driven necrosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, parthanatos, entotic cell death, NETotic cell death, lysosome-dependent cell death, autophagy-dependent cell death, immunogenic cell death, cellular senescence, and mitotic catastrophe, we discuss the utility of neologisms that refer to highly specialized instances of these processes. The mission of the NCCD is to provide a widely accepted nomenclature on cell death in support of the continued development of the field.


Galluzzi, L., Vitale, I., Aaronson, S. A., Abrams, J. M., Adam, D., Agostinis, P., …Others, . (2018). Molecular mechanisms of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death. Cell Death and Differentiation, 25, 486-541.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 13, 2018
Publication Date Jan 23, 2018
Deposit Date Apr 14, 2018
Publicly Available Date Apr 14, 2018
Print ISSN 1350-9047
Publisher Springer Nature [academic journals on]
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 25
Pages 486-541
Public URL


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