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Epidemiological Risk Factors for Animal Influenza A Viruses Overcoming Species Barriers

Harris, K A; Freidl, G S; Munoz, O S; Von Dobschuetz, S; De Nardi, M; Wieland, B; Koopmans, M P G; Staerk, K D C; Van Reeth, K; Dauphin, G; Meijer, A; De Bruin, E; Capua, I; Hill, AA; Kosmider, R; Banks, J; Stevens, K B; Van Der Werf, S; Enouf, V; Van Der Meulen, K; Brown, I H; Alexander, D J; Breed, A C; FLURISK Consortium


K A Harris

G S Freidl

O S Munoz

S Von Dobschuetz

M De Nardi

B Wieland

M P G Koopmans

K D C Staerk

K Van Reeth

G Dauphin

A Meijer

E De Bruin

I Capua

AA Hill

R Kosmider

J Banks

K B Stevens

S Van Der Werf

V Enouf

K Van Der Meulen

I H Brown

D J Alexander

A C Breed

FLURISK Consortium


Drivers and risk factors for Influenza A virus transmission across species barriers are poorly understood, despite the ever present threat to human and animal health potentially on a pandemic scale. Here we review the published evidence for epidemiological risk factors associated with influenza viruses transmitting between animal species and from animals to humans. A total of 39 papers were found with evidence of epidemiological risk factors for influenza virus transmission from animals to humans; 18 of which had some statistical measure associated with the transmission of a virus. Circumstantial or observational evidence of risk factors for transmission between animal species was found in 21 papers, including proximity to infected animals, ingestion of infected material and potential association with a species known to carry influenza virus. Only three publications were found which presented a statistical measure of an epidemiological risk factor for the transmission of influenza between animal species. This review has identified a significant gap in knowledge regarding epidemiological risk factors for the transmission of influenza viruses between animal species.


Harris, K. A., Freidl, G. S., Munoz, O. S., Von Dobschuetz, S., De Nardi, M., Wieland, B., …FLURISK Consortium, . (2017). Epidemiological Risk Factors for Animal Influenza A Viruses Overcoming Species Barriers. EcoHealth, 14(2), 342-360.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 1, 2017
Publication Date May 18, 2017
Deposit Date Jul 13, 2018
Print ISSN 1612-9202
Publisher Springer
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 14
Issue 2
Pages 342-360
Public URL