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Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog

Chang, Y M; Hadox, E; Szladovits, B; Garden, O A


Y M Chang

E Hadox

B Szladovits

O A Garden


The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species.


Chang, Y. M., Hadox, E., Szladovits, B., & Garden, O. A. (2016). Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog. PLoS ONE, 11(2), e0149650.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 3, 2016
Publication Date Feb 26, 2016
Deposit Date Mar 11, 2016
Publicly Available Date Mar 11, 2016
Journal PLoS One
Publisher Public Library of Science
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 11
Issue 2
Pages e0149650
Public URL


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