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Evaluating integrated surveillance for antimicrobial use and resistance in England: a qualitative study

Bennani, Houda; Cornelsen, Laura; Stärk, Katharina D C; Häsler, Barbara


Houda Bennani

Laura Cornelsen

Katharina D C Stärk

Barbara Häsler


Integrated surveillance systems for antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) require regular evaluation to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of the system. An important step in the evaluation is to choose an appropriate tool for the purpose of the evaluation. The "Integrated Surveillance System Evaluation" (ISSE) framework is a conceptual framework that was developed to evaluate One Health (OH) integration in surveillance system for AMU/AMR. This study aimed to evaluate the performance and value of integrated surveillance system for AMU/AMR in England by applying the ISSE framework, which was used to develop data collection protocols and define the study design. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted to collect the data and analyse it thematically. Eighteen stakeholders from human, animal, food and environment sectors that are involved in AMU/AMR surveillance were interviewed. Four main themes emerged from the analysis: 1) Cross-sectoral integration in the surveillance system for AMU/AMR; 2) Production of OH outputs and outcomes; 3) Drivers and barriers to cross-sectoral collaboration; and 4) Need for more cross-sectoral collaboration. The findings showed that there were links between integrated surveillance information, decision making and interventions. However, there were only few OH examples, such as the UK AMR contingency plan, where the potential of cross-sectoral collaboration was fully exploited. A lot of the benefits described were related to the generation of information and increase in knowledge and understanding without links to how the information generated was used. While these intangible benefits have a value on their own, being able to link surveillance information and mitigation measures would help to enhance the value of integrated surveillance. In terms of improvement, the main areas identified were the development of more harmonised methods for data collection and analysis, provision of resources dedicated to cross-sectoral collaboration, improved coordination, and collection of surveillance data from the environment and from companion animals. By identifying links between OH surveillance information produced and various outputs and outcomes; this study helped to understand the wider benefits of integrated surveillance for AMU/AMR in England and provided insights on how the system could be improved and efficiency increased.


Bennani, H., Cornelsen, L., Stärk, K. D. C., & Häsler, B. (2021). Evaluating integrated surveillance for antimicrobial use and resistance in England: a qualitative study. Frontiers in Veterinary Science,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 4, 2021
Publication Date Nov 2, 2021
Deposit Date Nov 2, 2021
Publicly Available Date Nov 2, 2021
Publisher Frontiers Media
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial use; integrated surveillance; evaluation; One Health
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