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Evaluation Of Presentation Treatment And Outcome In Hypertensive Emergency in dogs and cats: 15 cases (2003-2019)

Beeston, David; Jepson, Rosanne; Cortellini, Stefano


David Beeston

Rosanne Jepson

Stefano Cortellini


Title: Evaluation of presentation, treatment and outcome in hypertensive emergency in dogs and cats: 15 cases (2003-2019).
Introduction: Hypertensive emergency (HE) is well-recognised in human medicine, yet there is limited veterinary evidence. This study aimed to determine the presentation, treatment, and outcome in dogs and cats with HE.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with dogs and cats with HE identified as follows: acute history with non-invasive Doppler systolic blood pressure (SBP) > 180mmHg and target organ damage including acute onset seizures, altered mentation with or without lateral recumbency, or blindness. Data collected included signalment, history, physical examination and clinicopathological findings, SBP, anti-hypertensive treatment and outcome.
Results: Seven dogs and eight cats were included presenting with seizures (n = 9), blindness (n = 4), altered mentation with (n = 2) or without (n = 2) lateral recumbency. Mean age was 9.2 years ± 3.9 and duration of clinical signs prior to presentation was 1.5 days (range 1 – 15). Median SBP on presentation was 230mmHg (range 190 – 300). Amlodipine was the most common first line agent (n = 10), followed by hydralazine (n = 4) and hypertonic saline (n = 1). Aetiology of hypertensive emergency was acute kidney injury (n = 9), idiopathic hypertension (n = 3), hyperthyroidism (n = 1), lymphoma (n = 1), and suspected cutaneous and renal glomerulonephropathy (n = 1). Five cats and three dogs survived to discharge with an overall survival of 53.3%.
Conclusions: Mortality is common in patients with hypertensive emergency.


Beeston, D., Jepson, R., & Cortellini, S. (2022). Evaluation Of Presentation Treatment And Outcome In Hypertensive Emergency in dogs and cats: 15 cases (2003-2019). Journal of Small Animal Practice,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 14, 2022
Publication Date Jul 10, 2022
Deposit Date Jun 29, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jul 18, 2022
Print ISSN 0022-4510
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed


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