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Evaluation Of Presentation Treatment And Outcome In Hypertensive Emergency in dogs and cats: 15 cases (2003-2019)

Beeston, David; Jepson, Rosanne; Cortellini, Stefano

Authors

David Beeston

Rosanne Jepson

Stefano Cortellini



Abstract

Title: Evaluation of presentation, treatment and outcome in hypertensive emergency in dogs and cats: 15 cases (2003-2019).
Introduction: Hypertensive emergency (HE) is well-recognised in human medicine, yet there is limited veterinary evidence. This study aimed to determine the presentation, treatment, and outcome in dogs and cats with HE.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with dogs and cats with HE identified as follows: acute history with non-invasive Doppler systolic blood pressure (SBP) > 180mmHg and target organ damage including acute onset seizures, altered mentation with or without lateral recumbency, or blindness. Data collected included signalment, history, physical examination and clinicopathological findings, SBP, anti-hypertensive treatment and outcome.
Results: Seven dogs and eight cats were included presenting with seizures (n = 9), blindness (n = 4), altered mentation with (n = 2) or without (n = 2) lateral recumbency. Mean age was 9.2 years ± 3.9 and duration of clinical signs prior to presentation was 1.5 days (range 1 – 15). Median SBP on presentation was 230mmHg (range 190 – 300). Amlodipine was the most common first line agent (n = 10), followed by hydralazine (n = 4) and hypertonic saline (n = 1). Aetiology of hypertensive emergency was acute kidney injury (n = 9), idiopathic hypertension (n = 3), hyperthyroidism (n = 1), lymphoma (n = 1), and suspected cutaneous and renal glomerulonephropathy (n = 1). Five cats and three dogs survived to discharge with an overall survival of 53.3%.
Conclusions: Mortality is common in patients with hypertensive emergency.

Citation

Beeston, D., Jepson, R., & Cortellini, S. (2022). Evaluation Of Presentation Treatment And Outcome In Hypertensive Emergency in dogs and cats: 15 cases (2003-2019). Journal of Small Animal Practice, https://doi.org/10.1111/jsap.13530

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 14, 2022
Publication Date Jul 10, 2022
Deposit Date Jun 29, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jul 18, 2022
Print ISSN 0022-4510
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
DOI https://doi.org/10.1111/jsap.13530

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