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Metformin and empagliflozin combination modulate macrophage inflammatory gene expression

Arefin, Adittya; Gage, Matthew C


Adittya Arefin

Matthew C Gage


Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus is a complex, chronic illness characterized by persistent high blood glucose levels. Patients can be described anti diabetes drugs as single agents or in combination depending on the severity of their condition. Metformin and empagliflozin are two commonly prescribed anti-diabetes drugs which reduce hyperglycemia, however their direct effects on macrophage inflammatory responses alone or in combination are unexplored. Here we show that metformin and empagliflozon elicit proinflammatory responses on mouse bone-marrow derived macrophages which are reduced when added in combination.


Arefin, A., & Gage, M. C. (2023). Metformin and empagliflozin combination modulate macrophage inflammatory gene expression. International Journal of Molecular Sciences,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 23, 2023
Online Publication Date Mar 1, 2023
Publication Date Mar 1, 2023
Deposit Date Mar 9, 2022
Publicly Available Date Mar 7, 2023
Journal International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Print ISSN 1661-6596
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Macrophage; diabetes; insulin resistance; metformin; empagliflozin, combinations; anti-diabetes drugs
Publisher URL


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