Fluoroquinolones (FQ) are commonly used in dogs with bacterial skin infections. Their use as first choice, along with the increased incidence of FQ-resistance, represents a risk to animal and public health. Our study determined minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations of five FQs in Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Escherichia coli, together with FQ-resistance mechanisms.
MICs, efflux pump (EP) overexpression and MBCs were measured in 249 skin infection isolates following CLSI guidelines (CLSI VET01-A4, CLSI M26-A). Chromosomal and plasmid mediated resistance genes were investigated after DNA extraction and sequencing. FQ-resistance was detected in 10% of methicillin-susceptible (MS), 90% of methicillin-resistant (MR) staphylococci and in 36% of E. coli. Bactericidal effect was observed except in 50% of MRSA/P for ciprofloxacin and in 20% of MRSPs for enrofloxacin. Highest MICs were associated with double mutation in gyrA (Ser83Leu+Asp87Asn), efflux pumps and three PMQR genes in E. coli, and grlA (Ser80Phe+Glu84Lys) in S. aureus. EP overexpression was high among E. coli (96%), low in S. aureus (1%) and absent in S. pseudintermedius.
Pradofloxacin and moxifloxacin showed low MICs with bactericidal effect. Since in vitro FQ resistance was associated with MR, FQ use should be prudently guided by susceptibility testing.
Azzariti, S., Bond, R., Loeffler, A., Zendri, F., Timofte, D., Chang, Y., & Pelligand, L. (2022). Investigation of in vitro susceptibility and resistance mechanisms in skin pathogens: perspectives for fluoroquinolone therapy in canine pyoderma. Antibiotics, https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11091204