Detection of viable Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in powdered infant formula by phage-PCR and confirmed by culture
Botsaris, G; Swift, B M C; Slana, I; Liapi, M; Christodoulou, M; Hatzitofi, M; Christodoulou, V; Rees, C E
B M C Swift
C E Rees
Surveys from different parts of the world have reported that viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) can be cultured from approximately 2% of samples of retail pasteurised milk samples. Pasteurised milk is used for the production of powdered infant formula (PIF) and therefore there is a concern that MAP may also be present in these products. Several studies have previously reported the detection of MAP in PIF using PCR-based assays. However, culture-based surveys of PIF have not detected viable MAP. Here we describe a phage amplification assay coupled with PCR (page-PCR) that can rapidly detect viable MAP in PIF. The results of a small survey showed that the phage-PCR assay detected viable MAP in 13% (4/32) of PIF samples. Culture detected viable MAP in 9% (3/32) PIF samples, all of which were also phage-PCR positive. Direct IS900 PCR detected MAP DNA in 22% (7/32) of PIF samples. The presence of viable MAP in PIF indicates that MAP either survived PIF manufacturing or that post-production contamination occurred. Irrespective of the route of MAP contamination, the presence of viable MAP in PIF is a potential public health concern.
Botsaris, G., Swift, B. M. C., Slana, I., Liapi, M., Christodoulou, M., Hatzitofi, M., …Rees, C. E. (2016). Detection of viable Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in powdered infant formula by phage-PCR and confirmed by culture. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 216, 91-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2015.09.011
|Journal Article Type||Article|
|Acceptance Date||Sep 19, 2015|
|Publication Date||Jan 4, 2016|
|Deposit Date||Aug 14, 2018|
|Journal||International Journal of Food Microbiology|
You might also like
The specificity of phage testing for MAP — where might it fit into the diagnostic armoury?