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Epithelial cell shedding and barrier function: a matter of life and death at the small intestinal villus tip

Williams, J M; Duckworth, C A; Burkitt, M D; Watson, A J; Campbell, B J; Pritchard, D M


J M Williams

C A Duckworth

M D Burkitt

A J Watson

B J Campbell

D M Pritchard


The intestinal epithelium is a critical component of the gut barrier. Composed of a single layer of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) held together by tight junctions, this delicate structure prevents the transfer of harmful microorganisms, antigens, and toxins from the gut lumen into the circulation. The equilibrium between the rate of apoptosis and shedding of senescent epithelial cells at the villus tip, and the generation of new cells in the crypt, is key to maintaining tissue homeostasis. However, in both localized and systemic inflammation, this balance may be disturbed as a result of pathological IEC shedding. Shedding of IECs from the epithelial monolayer may cause transient gaps or microerosions in the epithelial barrier, resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Although pathological IEC shedding has been observed in mouse models of inflammation and human intestinal conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited. This process may also be an important contributor to systemic and intestinal inflammatory diseases and gut barrier dysfunction in domestic animal species. This review aims to summarize current knowledge about intestinal epithelial cell shedding, its significance in gut barrier dysfunction and host-microbial interactions, and where research in this field is directed.


Williams, J. M., Duckworth, C. A., Burkitt, M. D., Watson, A. J., Campbell, B. J., & Pritchard, D. M. (2015). Epithelial cell shedding and barrier function: a matter of life and death at the small intestinal villus tip. Veterinary Pathology, 523(3), 445-55.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 1, 2014
Publication Date May 1, 2015
Deposit Date Jul 20, 2018
Publicly Available Date Jul 25, 2018
Print ISSN 0300-9858
Publisher American College of Veterinary Pathologists
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 523
Issue 3
Pages 445-55
Public URL


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