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Essential versus accessory aspects of cell death: recommendations of the NCCD 2015

Galluzzi, L; Bravo-San Pedro, J M; Vitale, I; Aaronson, S A; Abrams, J M; Adam, D; Alnemri, E S; Altucci, L; Andrews, D W; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, M; Baehrecke, E H; Bazan, N G; Bertrand, M J; Bianchi, K; Blagosklonny, M V; Blomgren, K; Borner, C; Bredesen, D E; Brenner, C; Campanella, M; Candi, E; Cecconi, F; Chan, F K; Chandel, N S; Cheng, E H; Chipuk, J E; Cidlowski, J A; Ciechanover, A; Dawson, T M; Dawson, VL; De Laurenzi, V; De Maria, R; Debatin, K M; Di Daniele, N; Dixit, V M; Dynlacht, B D; El-Deiry, W S; Fimia, G M; Flavell, R A; Fulda, S; Garrido, C; Gougeon, M L; Green, D R; Gronemeyer, H; Hardwick, J M; Hengartner, M O; Ichijo, H; Joseph, B; Jost, P J; Kaufmann, T; Kepp, O; Klionsky, D J; Knight, R A; Kumar, S; Lemasters, J J; Levine, B; Linkermann, A; Lipton, S A; Lockshin, R A; López-Otín, C; Lugli, E; Madeo, F; Malorni, W; Marine, J C; Martin, S J; Martinou, J C; Medema, J P; Meier, P; Melino, S; Mizushima, N; Moll, U; Muñoz-Pinedo, C; Nuñez, G; Oberst, A; Panaretakis...


L Galluzzi

J M Bravo-San Pedro

I Vitale

S A Aaronson

J M Abrams

D Adam

E S Alnemri

L Altucci

D W Andrews

M Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli

E H Baehrecke

N G Bazan

M J Bertrand

K Bianchi

M V Blagosklonny

K Blomgren

C Borner

D E Bredesen

C Brenner

M Campanella

E Candi

F Cecconi

F K Chan

N S Chandel

E H Cheng

J E Chipuk

J A Cidlowski

A Ciechanover

T M Dawson

VL Dawson

V De Laurenzi

R De Maria

K M Debatin

N Di Daniele

V M Dixit

B D Dynlacht

W S El-Deiry

G M Fimia

R A Flavell

S Fulda

C Garrido

M L Gougeon

D R Green

H Gronemeyer

J M Hardwick

M O Hengartner

H Ichijo

B Joseph

P J Jost

T Kaufmann

O Kepp

D J Klionsky

R A Knight

S Kumar

J J Lemasters

B Levine

A Linkermann

S A Lipton

R A Lockshin

C López-Otín

E Lugli

F Madeo

W Malorni

J C Marine

S J Martin

J C Martinou

J P Medema

P Meier

S Melino

N Mizushima

U Moll

C Muñoz-Pinedo

G Nuñez

A Oberst

T Panaretakis

J M Penninger

M E Peter

M Piacentini

P Pinton

J H Prehn

H Puthalakath

G A Rabinovich

K S Ravichandran

R Rizzuto

C M Rodrigues

D C Rubinsztein

T Rudel

Y Shi

H U Simon

B R Stockwell

G Szabadkai

S W Tair

H L Tang

N Tavernarakis

Y Tsujimoto

T Vanden Berghe

P Vandenabeele

A Villunger

E F Wagner

H Walczak

E White

W G Wood

J Yuan

Z Zakeri

B Zhivotovsky

G Melino

G Kroemer


Cells exposed to extreme physicochemical or mechanical stimuli die in an uncontrollable manner, as a result of their immediate structural breakdown. Such an unavoidable variant of cellular demise is generally referred to as ‘accidental cell death’ (ACD). In most settings, however, cell death is initiated by a genetically encoded apparatus, correlating with the fact that its course can be altered by pharmacologic or genetic interventions. ‘Regulated cell death’ (RCD) can occur as part of physiologic programs or can be activated once adaptive responses to perturbations of the extracellular or intracellular microenvironment fail. The biochemical phenomena that accompany RCD may be harnessed to classify it into a few subtypes, which often (but not always) exhibit stereotyped morphologic features. Nonetheless, efficiently inhibiting the processes that are commonly thought to cause RCD, such as the activation of executioner caspases in the course of apoptosis, does not exert true cytoprotective effects in the mammalian system, but simply alters the kinetics of cellular demise as it shifts its morphologic and biochemical correlates. Conversely, bona fide cytoprotection can be achieved by inhibiting the transduction of lethal signals in the early phases of the process, when adaptive responses are still operational. Thus, the mechanisms that truly execute RCD may be less understood, less inhibitable and perhaps more homogeneous than previously thought. Here, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death formulates a set of recommendations to help scientists and researchers to discriminate between essential and accessory aspects of cell death.


Galluzzi, L., Bravo-San Pedro, J. M., Vitale, I., Aaronson, S. A., Abrams, J. M., Adam, D., …Kroemer, G. (2015). Essential versus accessory aspects of cell death: recommendations of the NCCD 2015. Cell Death and Differentiation, 22(1), 58-57.

Journal Article Type Review
Acceptance Date Jul 30, 2014
Publication Date Feb 1, 2015
Deposit Date Mar 14, 2015
Publicly Available Date Dec 19, 2018
Print ISSN 1350-9047
Publisher Springer Nature [academic journals on]
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 22
Issue 1
Pages 58-57
Public URL
Additional Information Corporate Creators : PLUS MORE AUTHORS


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