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Zoonotic tuberculosis — The changing landscape

Kock, Richard; Kock, Richard; Michel, Anita L.; Haider, Najmul; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Brunton, Lucy; Azhar, Esam I.; Torrelles, Jordi B.; Cadmus, Simeon I.; Brunton, Lucy; Chakaya, Jeremiah M.; Marais, Ben; Mboera, Leonard; Rahim, Zeaur; Haider, Najmul; Zumla, Alimuddin


Richard Kock

Richard Kock

Anita L. Michel

Najmul Haider

Dorothy Yeboah-Manu

Lucy Brunton

Esam I. Azhar

Jordi B. Torrelles

Simeon I. Cadmus

Lucy Brunton

Jeremiah M. Chakaya

Ben Marais

Leonard Mboera

Zeaur Rahim

Najmul Haider

Alimuddin Zumla


Despite slow reductions in the annual burden of active human tuberculosis (TB) cases, zoonotic TB (zTB) remains
a poorly monitored and an important unaddressed global problem. There is a higher incidence in some regions
and countries, especially where close association exists between growing numbers of cattle (the major source of
Mycobacterium bovis) and people, many suffering from poverty, and where dairy products are consumed unpasteurised.
More attention needs to be focused on possible increased zTB incidence resulting from growth in dairy
production globally and increased demand in low income countries in particular (). Evidence of new zoonotic
mycobacterial strains in South Asia and Africa (e.g. M. orygis), warrants urgent assessment of prevalence, potential
drivers and risk in order to develop appropriate interventions. Control of M. bovis infection in cattle through
detect and cull policies remain the mainstay of reducing zTB risk, whilst in certain circumstances animal vaccination
is proving beneficial. New point of care diagnostics will help to detect animal infections and human cases.
Given the high burden of human tuberculosis (caused by M. tuberculosis) in endemic areas, animals are affected
by reverse zoonosis, including multi-drug resistant strains. This, may create drug resistant reservoirs of infection
in animals. Like COVID-19, zTB is evolving in an ever-changing global landscape.


Kock, R., Kock, R., Michel, A. L., Haider, N., Yeboah-Manu, D., Brunton, L., …Zumla, A. (2021). Zoonotic tuberculosis — The changing landscape. International Journal of Infectious Diseases,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 23, 2021
Online Publication Date Mar 1, 2021
Publication Date 2021-03
Deposit Date May 17, 2021
Publicly Available Date Jun 11, 2021
Journal International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Print ISSN 1201-9712
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Microbiology (medical); Infectious Diseases; General Medicine
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