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Equine penile squamous cell carcinoma: expression of biomarker proteins and EcPV2

Arthurs, C; Suarez-Bonnet, A; Willis, C; Xie, B; Machulla, N; Mair, T S; Cao, K; Millar, M; Thrasivoulou, C; Priestnall, S L; Ahmed, A


C Arthurs

A Suarez-Bonnet

C Willis

B Xie

N Machulla

T S Mair

K Cao

M Millar

C Thrasivoulou

S L Priestnall

A Ahmed


Equine penile squamous cell carcinoma (EpSCC) is a relatively common cutaneous neoplasm with a poor prognosis. In this study, we aimed to determine the protein expression and colocalisation of FRA1, c-Myc, Cyclin D1, and MMP7 in normal (NT), tumour (T), hyperplastic epidermis and/or squamous papilloma (Hyp/Pap), poorly-differentiated (PDSCC), or well-differentiated (WDSCC) EpSCC using a tissue array approach. Further objectives were to correlate protein expression to (i) levels of inflammation, using a convolutional neural network (ii) equine papillomavirus 2 (EcPV2) infection, detected using PCR amplification. We found an increase in expression of FRA1 in EpSCC compared to NT samples. c-Myc expression was higher in Hyp/Pap and WDSCC but not PDSCC whereas MMP7 was reduced in WDSCC compared with NT. There was a significant increase in the global intersection coefficient (GIC) of FRA1 with MMP7, c-Myc, and Cyclin D1 in EpSCC. Conversely, GIC for MMP7 with c-Myc was reduced in EpSCC tissue. Inflammation was positively associated with EcPV2 infection in both NT and EpSCC but not Hyp/Pap. Changes in protein expression could be correlated with EcPV2 for Cyclin D1 and c-Myc. Our results evaluate novel biomarkers of EpSCC and a putative correlation between the expression of biomarkers, EcPV2 infection and inflammation.


Arthurs, C., Suarez-Bonnet, A., Willis, C., Xie, B., Machulla, N., Mair, T. S., …Ahmed, A. (2020). Equine penile squamous cell carcinoma: expression of biomarker proteins and EcPV2. Scientific Reports, 10(1),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 27, 2020
Publication Date May 12, 2020
Deposit Date May 27, 2020
Publicly Available Date May 27, 2020
Journal Scientific Reports
Publisher Nature Research
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 10
Issue 1
Public URL


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