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Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Risk Factors Associated with Salmonella spp. Isolates from Poultry Farms in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Osman, Abdinasir Yusuf; Elmi, Sharifo Ali; Simons, David; Elton, Linzy; Haider, Najmul; Khan, Mohd Azam; Othman, Iekhsan; Zumla, Alimuddin; McCoy, David; Kock, Richard

Authors

Abdinasir Yusuf Osman

Sharifo Ali Elmi

David Simons

Linzy Elton

Najmul Haider

Mohd Azam Khan

Iekhsan Othman

Alimuddin Zumla

David McCoy

Richard Kock



Abstract

The burden of antimicrobial use in agricultural settings is one of the greatest challenges
facing global health and food security in the modern era. Malaysian poultry operations are a relevant
but understudied component of epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. We aimed to identify
the prevalence, resistance patterns, and risk factors associated with Salmonella isolates from poultry
farms in three states of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia. Between 8 February 2019 and 23 February
2020, a total of 371 samples (cloacal swabs = 259; faecal = 84; Sewage = 14, Tap water = 14) was
collected from poultry operations. Characteristics of the sampled farms and associated risk factors
were obtained using semi-structured questionnaires. Presumptive Salmonella spp. isolates were
identified based on colony morphology with subsequent biochemical and PCR confirmation. Susceptibility
of isolates was tested against a panel of 12 antimicrobials using disk diffusion method.
Our findings revealed that the proportion of Salmonella spp.-positive isolates across sample source
were as following: cloacal swab (46.3%, 120/259); faecal (59.5%, 50/84); in tap water (14.3%, 2/14);
and in sewage sample (35.7%, 5/14). Isolates from faecal (15.5%, 13/84), cloacal (1.2%, 3/259), and
sewage (7.1%, 1/14) samples were significantly resistant to at least five classes of antimicrobials.
Resistance to Sulfonamides class (52%, 92/177) was predominantly observed followed by tetracycline
(39.5%, 70/177) and aminoglycosides (35.6%, 63/177). Multivariate regression analysis identified
intensive management system (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.00–2.40) as a leading driver of antimicrobial
resistance (AMR) acquisition. A prevalence of resistance to common antimicrobials was recorded
for sulfamethoxazole (33.9%), tetracycline (39.5%), and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (37.9%). A
close association between different risk factors and the prevalence of AMR of Salmonella strains suggests
a concern over rising misuse of veterinary antimicrobials that may contribute to the emergence
and evolution of multidrug-resistant pathogen isolates. One Health approach is recommended to
achieve a positive health outcome for all species.

Citation

Osman, A. Y., Elmi, S. A., Simons, D., Elton, L., Haider, N., Khan, M. A., …Kock, R. (in press). Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Risk Factors Associated with Salmonella spp. Isolates from Poultry Farms in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Pathogens, 10(9), 1160. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091160

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 6, 2021
Online Publication Date Sep 9, 2021
Deposit Date Oct 6, 2021
Publicly Available Date Nov 1, 2021
Journal Pathogens
Print ISSN 2076-0817
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 10
Issue 9
Pages 1160
DOI https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091160
Keywords Infectious Diseases; Microbiology (medical); General Immunology and Microbiology; Molecular Biology; Immunology and Allergy
Public URL https://rvc-repository.worktribe.com/output/1551504

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