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Risk factors for COVID-19 mortality in hospitalized patients in Bolivia

Limachi-Choque, Jhonny; Guitian, Javier; Leyns, Christine; Guzman-Rivero, Miguel; Eid, Daniel


Jhonny Limachi-Choque

Javier Guitian

Christine Leyns

Miguel Guzman-Rivero

Daniel Eid


Objectives This study aimed to ascertain which factors are associated with higher risk of mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 Bolivian patients. Methods This retrospective observational study assessed risk factors associated with mortality in patients (n = 549) hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection in a Bolivian hospital between April 6, 2020, and August 18, 2022. Results The results provide evidence of association between male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.6), older age, 51-61 years-old (OR = 5.2, 95% CI 2.2-12.6), 62-70 years-old (OR = 8.7, 95% CI 3.7-20.5), >70 years-old (OR = 16.9, 95% CI 7.1-39.9), and blood group A (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.4) with higher mortality risk. The strong association between mortality and relatively young age, may be due to high frequency of undiagnosed comorbidities. Vaccination was associated with a reduction in mortality only when time period of hospitalization was not adjusted for. Conclusion Among hospitalized patients in Bolivia male sex, older age, and blood group A are associated with higher mortality risk. Mortality risk increased markedly from a relatively young age and decreased in parallel to the uptake of the vaccination program. However, the gradual reduction in mortality can also be due to improved patient management and changes in natural immunity and virulence of circulating strains as the pandemic progressed.


Limachi-Choque, J., Guitian, J., Leyns, C., Guzman-Rivero, M., & Eid, D. (2023). Risk factors for COVID-19 mortality in hospitalized patients in Bolivia. IJID International Journal for Infectious Diseases Regions, 9, 95-101.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 5, 2023
Online Publication Date Nov 1, 2023
Publication Date 2023
Deposit Date May 7, 2024
Publicly Available Date May 7, 2024
Journal IJID Regions
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 9
Pages 95-101
Keywords Mortality; COVID-19; Comorbidity; Hospitalized; Blood group; Vaccine; Bolivia
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