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Piling behaviour in British layer flocks: Observations and farmers' èxperiences (2022)
Journal Article
Winter, J., Stratmann, A., Toscano, M. J., Cardwell, J. M., & Nicol, C. J. (2022). Piling behaviour in British layer flocks: Observations and farmers' èxperiences. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 253, Article 105686. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2022.105686

Smothering of laying hens, defined as death due to suffocation when hens tightly pile together in layer barns, is a well-known problem affecting the British loose-housed layer industry. However, knowledge about mechanisms contributing to piling in Br... Read More about Piling behaviour in British layer flocks: Observations and farmers' èxperiences.

Sentience in decapod crustaceans: A general framework and review of the evidence. Animal Sentience 32(1) (2022)
Journal Article
Crump, A., Browning, H., Schnell, A., Burn, C., & Birch, J. (2022). Sentience in decapod crustaceans: A general framework and review of the evidence. Animal Sentience 32(1). Animal Sentience, 32, Article 407. https://doi.org/10.51291/2377-7478.1691

We outline a framework for evaluating scientific evidence of sentience, focusing on pain experience. It includes eight neural and cognitive-behavioural criteria, with confidence levels for each criterion reflecting the reliability and quality of the... Read More about Sentience in decapod crustaceans: A general framework and review of the evidence. Animal Sentience 32(1).

Housing and Environmental Enrichment of the Domestic Ferret: A Multi-Sector Survey (2022)
Journal Article
Dancer, A. M., Díez-León, M., Bizley, J. K., & Burn, C. C. (2022). Housing and Environmental Enrichment of the Domestic Ferret: A Multi-Sector Survey. Animals, 12, Article 1065. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12091065

Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) are kept and used in multiple sectors of society, but little is known about how they are housed and what environmental enrichment (EE) they may benefit from. We aimed to help guide caretakers about what housing and EE... Read More about Housing and Environmental Enrichment of the Domestic Ferret: A Multi-Sector Survey.

The effect of hard pecking enrichment during rear on feather cover, feather pecking behaviour and beak length in beak-trimmed and intact-beak laying hen pullets. (2022)
Journal Article
Baker, P. E., Nicol, C. J., & Weeks, C. A. (2022). The effect of hard pecking enrichment during rear on feather cover, feather pecking behaviour and beak length in beak-trimmed and intact-beak laying hen pullets. Animals,

Injurious Pecking, commonly controlled by beak trimming (BT) is a widespread issue in laying hens associated with thwarted foraging. This controlled study compared the effect in intact and beak-trimmed pullets of providing pecking pans to 8 treatment... Read More about The effect of hard pecking enrichment during rear on feather cover, feather pecking behaviour and beak length in beak-trimmed and intact-beak laying hen pullets..

The effect of needle reuse on piglet skin puncture force (2022)
Journal Article
Gibson, T., Blackie, N., & Owen, K. (2022). The effect of needle reuse on piglet skin puncture force. Veterinary Sciences, https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9020090

The study investigated whether repeat-use of needles used to inject piglets with iron, influences the force required to puncture into piglet cadaver skin. Pig units were surveyed on needle reuse and injection practices, these findings informed subseq... Read More about The effect of needle reuse on piglet skin puncture force.

Assessing Animal Welfare: A triangulation of preference, judgement bias and other candidate welfare indicators (2021)
Journal Article
Paul, E., Browne, W., Mendl, M., Caplen, G., Trevarthen, A., Held, S., & Nicol, C. (in press). Assessing Animal Welfare: A triangulation of preference, judgement bias and other candidate welfare indicators. Animal Behaviour,

To assess the welfare of captive animals, validated measures – so called “welfare indicators” - are required. We used a triangulation approach to investigate the extent to which different measures converged to provide corroborating evidence of welfar... Read More about Assessing Animal Welfare: A triangulation of preference, judgement bias and other candidate welfare indicators.

Time to Loss of Behavioural and Brainstem Responses of Ducks Following Non-Stunned Slaughter (2021)
Journal Article
Gibson, T. (in press). Time to Loss of Behavioural and Brainstem Responses of Ducks Following Non-Stunned Slaughter. Animals, https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123531

Non-stunned slaughter has been extensively described for other farmed species but there has been limited research on waterfowl. The study assessed 34 ducks in a non-stunned halal slaughter-house in Brazil for time to loss of consciousness using vario... Read More about Time to Loss of Behavioural and Brainstem Responses of Ducks Following Non-Stunned Slaughter.

Pandemic Puppies: Characterising motivations and behaviours of UK owners who purchased puppies during the 2020 COVID-19 Pandemic (2021)
Journal Article
Packer, R., Brand, C., Belshaw, Z., Pegram, C., Stevens, K., & O'Neill, D. (2021). Pandemic Puppies: Characterising motivations and behaviours of UK owners who purchased puppies during the 2020 COVID-19 Pandemic. Animals, 11(9), 2500. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092500

Attempts to control the spread of coronavirus during the COVID-19 Pandemic included periods of ‘lockdown’ in the UK, where many households spent several months at home with limited external social contact. Data from diverse sources suggest unusually... Read More about Pandemic Puppies: Characterising motivations and behaviours of UK owners who purchased puppies during the 2020 COVID-19 Pandemic.

Standards for the Management and Welfare of Elephants in Human Care in Southern Africa (2021)
Book
Nicol, C., Rendle-Worthington, J., Kiley-Worthington, M., & Yon, L. (2021). Standards for the Management and Welfare of Elephants in Human Care in Southern Africa. UK: Independent Publishing Network

Standards developed by the charity We are all Mammals (UK reg 1184289) with the participation of organisations that are custodians of elephants, regional and local animal welfare and veterinary organisations and international experts in animal welfar... Read More about Standards for the Management and Welfare of Elephants in Human Care in Southern Africa.

Associations between behaviour and health outcomes in conventional and slow-growing breeds of broiler chicken (2021)
Journal Article
Abeyesinghe, S., Abeyesinghe, S., Chancellor, N., Hernandez Moore, D., Chang, Y., Pearce, J., …Nicol, C. (2021). Associations between behaviour and health outcomes in conventional and slow-growing breeds of broiler chicken. animal, 15(7), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.animal.2021.100261

Broiler chickens are prone to a range of complex health and welfare issues. To support informed selection of welfare traits whilst minimising impact on production efficiency and to address a major gap in understanding, we systematically explored asso... Read More about Associations between behaviour and health outcomes in conventional and slow-growing breeds of broiler chicken.

An ethical framework for the use of horses in competitive sport: theory and function (2021)
Journal Article
Campbell, M. (2021). An ethical framework for the use of horses in competitive sport: theory and function. Animals, https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061725

Growing ethical concern about equestrian sport is reflected in publications by regulatory authorities, animal charities, and the lay press; and in government debate and social media. However, attempts by regulators and stakeholders to address ethica... Read More about An ethical framework for the use of horses in competitive sport: theory and function.

The pen is milder than the blade: Identification marking mice using ink on the tail appears more humane than ear-punching even with local anaesthetic (2021)
Journal Article
Burn, C., Mazlan, N., Chancellor, N., & Wells, D. (2021). The pen is milder than the blade: Identification marking mice using ink on the tail appears more humane than ear-punching even with local anaesthetic. Animals, 11, https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061664

Identification marking mice commonly involves ear-punching with or without anaesthetic, or tail-marking with ink. To identify which is most humane, we marked male BALB/c mice using ear-punching (EP), ear-punching with anaesthetic EMLATM cream (EP+A),... Read More about The pen is milder than the blade: Identification marking mice using ink on the tail appears more humane than ear-punching even with local anaesthetic.

An ethical framework for the use of horses in competitive sport: theory and function (2021)
Journal Article
(in press). An ethical framework for the use of horses in competitive sport: theory and function. Animals,

Growing ethical concern about equestrian sport is reflected in publications by regulatory authorities, animal charities, and the lay press; and in government debate and social media. However, attempts by regulators and stakeholders to address ethica... Read More about An ethical framework for the use of horses in competitive sport: theory and function.

Handling mice using gloves sprayed with alcohol-based hand sanitiser: acute effects on mouse behaviour (2021)
Journal Article
Burn, C., Lopez Salesansky, N., Wells, D., Whitfield, L., & Chancellor, N. (2021). Handling mice using gloves sprayed with alcohol-based hand sanitiser: acute effects on mouse behaviour. Animal Technology and Welfare, 20, 11-20

Alcohols are commonly used in laboratory animal facilities to disinfect hands, equipment and laboratory environments. The effect on mice is unknown, so we observed male and female C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice during and after handling with nitrile gloves... Read More about Handling mice using gloves sprayed with alcohol-based hand sanitiser: acute effects on mouse behaviour.

Rearing experience with ramps improves specific learning and behaviour and welfare on a commercial laying farm (2021)
Journal Article
Nicol, C., Norman, K. I., Weeks, C. A., Tarlton, J. F., & Nicol, C. J. (2021). Rearing experience with ramps improves specific learning and behaviour and welfare on a commercial laying farm. Scientific Reports,

To access resources in commercial laying houses hens must move between levels with agility to avoid injury. This study considered whether providing ramps during rear improved the ability of birds to transition between levels. Twelve commercial flocks... Read More about Rearing experience with ramps improves specific learning and behaviour and welfare on a commercial laying farm.

A Retrospective Case Study into the Effect of Hoof Lesions on the Lying Behaviour of Holstein–Friesian in a Loose-Housed System (2021)
Journal Article
Ji, K., Booth, R., & Blackie, N. (in press). A Retrospective Case Study into the Effect of Hoof Lesions on the Lying Behaviour of Holstein–Friesian in a Loose-Housed System. Animals, https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11041120

The association between hoof lesions and lying behaviour was assessed on a Holstein–Friesian dairy farm in England. Twenty-nine cows were included in the study. Cows with claw horn disruption lesions (CHDL, n = 8), soft tissue lesions (STL, n = 6), a... Read More about A Retrospective Case Study into the Effect of Hoof Lesions on the Lying Behaviour of Holstein–Friesian in a Loose-Housed System.

Social buffering in horses is influenced by context but not by the familiarity and habituation of a companion (2021)
Journal Article
C, R., CJ, N., T, R., & DS, M. (in press). Social buffering in horses is influenced by context but not by the familiarity and habituation of a companion. Scientific Reports,

Social buffering applies when a companion can help to reduce the subject’s stress response during a stressful event and/or help to recover more quickly from a stressful event. The aim of this study was to determine if the social buffering function of... Read More about Social buffering in horses is influenced by context but not by the familiarity and habituation of a companion.

A Grand Challenge for Animal Science: Multiple Goals – Convergent and Divergent (2021)
Journal Article
Nicol, C. (2021). A Grand Challenge for Animal Science: Multiple Goals – Convergent and Divergent. Frontiers in Animal Science, 2, https://doi.org/10.3389/fanim.2021.640503

People want safe, affordable, high quality animal-derived foods, produced in ways that protect rural livelihoods and cultures and which are derived from animals that lived healthy and happy lives. These aspirations must be set alongside the overarchi... Read More about A Grand Challenge for Animal Science: Multiple Goals – Convergent and Divergent.