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Detection of Clade 2.3.4.4b Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Cambodia, 2021 (2022)
Journal Article
Edwards, K., Siegers, J., Wei, X., Aziz, A., Deng, Y., Yann, S., …Karlsson, E. (2022). Detection of Clade 2.3.4.4b Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Cambodia, 2021. Emerging Infectious Disease, 29(1), 170-174. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2901.220934

Institute in Cambodia have partnered with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to enhance ongoing longitudinal AIV surveillance in live bird markets and poultry storage facilities throughout Cambodia. This active surveillance r... Read More about Detection of Clade 2.3.4.4b Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Cambodia, 2021.

Interspecies Transmission from Pigs to Ferrets of Antigenically Distinct Swine H1 Influenza A Viruses with Reduced Reactivity to Candidate Vaccine Virus Antisera as Measures of Relative Zoonotic Risk (2022)
Journal Article
Kimble, J., Souza, C., Anderson, T., Arendsee, Z., Hufnagel, D., Young, K., …Baker, A. (2022). Interspecies Transmission from Pigs to Ferrets of Antigenically Distinct Swine H1 Influenza A Viruses with Reduced Reactivity to Candidate Vaccine Virus Antisera as Measures of Relative Zoonotic Risk. Viruses, 14(11), https://doi.org/10.3390/v14112398

During the last decade, endemic swine H1 influenza A viruses (IAV) from six different genetic clades of the hemagglutinin gene caused zoonotic infections in humans. The majority of zoonotic events with swine IAV were restricted to a single case with... Read More about Interspecies Transmission from Pigs to Ferrets of Antigenically Distinct Swine H1 Influenza A Viruses with Reduced Reactivity to Candidate Vaccine Virus Antisera as Measures of Relative Zoonotic Risk.

A threat from both sides: Multiple introductions of genetically distinct H5 HPAI viruses into Canada via both East Asia-Australasia/Pacific and Atlantic flyways (2022)
Journal Article
Alkie, T., Lopes, S., Hisanaga, T., Xu, W., Suderman, M., Koziuk, J., …Berhane, Y. (2022). A threat from both sides: Multiple introductions of genetically distinct H5 HPAI viruses into Canada via both East Asia-Australasia/Pacific and Atlantic flyways. Virus Evolution, 8(2), https://doi.org/10.1093/ve/veac077

From 2016 to 2020, high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viruses circulated in Asia, Europe, and Africa, causing waves of infections and the deaths of millions of wild and domestic birds and presenting a zoonotic risk. In late 2021, H5N1 HPAI... Read More about A threat from both sides: Multiple introductions of genetically distinct H5 HPAI viruses into Canada via both East Asia-Australasia/Pacific and Atlantic flyways.

Genetic and Antigenic Characterization of Avian Avulavirus Type 6 (AAvV-6) Circulating in Canadian Wild Birds (2005-2017) (2021)
Journal Article
Hisanaga, T., Soos, C., Lewis, N., Lung, O., Suderman, M., & Berhane, Y. (2021). Genetic and Antigenic Characterization of Avian Avulavirus Type 6 (AAvV-6) Circulating in Canadian Wild Birds (2005-2017). Viruses, 13(4), https://doi.org/10.3390/v13040543

We describe for the first time the genetic and antigenic characterization of 18 avian avulavirus type-6 viruses (AAvV-6) that were isolated from wild waterfowl in the Americas over the span of 12 years. Only one of the AAvV-6 viruses isolated failed... Read More about Genetic and Antigenic Characterization of Avian Avulavirus Type 6 (AAvV-6) Circulating in Canadian Wild Birds (2005-2017).

Phylogenetic Analysis of H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Ukraine, 2016-2017 (2021)
Journal Article
Sapachova, M., Kovalenko, G., Sushko, M., Bezymennyi, M., Muzyka, D., Usachenko, N., …Bortz, E. (2021). Phylogenetic Analysis of H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Ukraine, 2016-2017. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 21(12), 979-988. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2021.0031

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) can be carried long distances by migratory wild birds and by poultry trade. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is often lethal in domestic poultry and can sporadically infect and cause severe re... Read More about Phylogenetic Analysis of H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Ukraine, 2016-2017.

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses at the Wild–Domestic Bird Interface in Europe: Future Directions for Research and Surveillance (2021)
Journal Article
Verhagen, J. H., Fouchier, R. A., & Lewis, N. (in press). Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses at the Wild–Domestic Bird Interface in Europe: Future Directions for Research and Surveillance. Viruses, 13(2), 212. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020212

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in wild birds and poultry are no longer a rare phenomenon in Europe. In the past 15 years, HPAI outbreaks—in particular those caused by H5 viruses derived from the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage th... Read More about Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses at the Wild–Domestic Bird Interface in Europe: Future Directions for Research and Surveillance.

Regional Transmission and Reassortment of 2.3.4.4b Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) Viruses in Bulgarian Poultry 2017/18 (2020)
Journal Article
Venkatesh, D., Brouwer, A., Goujgoulova, G., Ellis, R., Seekings, J., Brown, I., & Lewis, N. (2020). Regional Transmission and Reassortment of 2.3.4.4b Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) Viruses in Bulgarian Poultry 2017/18. Viruses, 12(6), 605

Between 2017 and 2018, several farms across Bulgaria reported outbreaks of H5 highly-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. In this study we used genomic and traditional epidemiological analyses to trace the origin and subsequent spread of these... Read More about Regional Transmission and Reassortment of 2.3.4.4b Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) Viruses in Bulgarian Poultry 2017/18.

Detection of H3N8 influenza A virus with multiple mammalian-adaptive mutations in a rescued Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pup (2020)
Journal Article
Venkatesh, D., Bianco, C., Nunez, A., Collins, R., Thorpe, D., Reid, S. M., …Lewis, N. S. (2020). Detection of H3N8 influenza A virus with multiple mammalian-adaptive mutations in a rescued Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pup. Virus Evolution, 6(1), https://doi.org/10.1093/ve/veaa016

Avian Influenza A Viruses (IAV) in different species of seals display a spectrum of pathogenicity, from subclinical infection to mass mortality events. Here we present an investigation of avian IAV infection in a 3-4 month old Grey seal (Halichoerus... Read More about Detection of H3N8 influenza A virus with multiple mammalian-adaptive mutations in a rescued Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pup.

Detection of H3N8 influenza A virus with multiple mammalian-adaptive mutations in a rescued Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pup (2020)
Journal Article
Venkatesh, D., Brown, I. H., Cooper, J., Seekings, J., McGinn, N., Essen, S., …Lewis, N. S. (2020). Detection of H3N8 influenza A virus with multiple mammalian-adaptive mutations in a rescued Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pup. Virus Evolution, 6(1), https://doi.org/10.1093/ve/veaa016

Avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) in different species of seals display a spectrum of pathogenicity, from sub-clinical infection to mass mortality events. Here we present an investigation of avian IAV infection in a 3- to 4-month-old Grey seal (Halich... Read More about Detection of H3N8 influenza A virus with multiple mammalian-adaptive mutations in a rescued Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pup.

Co-circulation of genetically distinct highly pathogenic avian influenza A clade 2.3.4.4 (H5N6) viruses in wild waterfowl and poultry in Europe and East Asia, 2017–18 (2019)
Journal Article
Poen, M. J., Venkatesh, D., Bestebroer, T. M., Vuong, O., Scheuer, R. D., Oude Munnink, B. B., …Lewis, N. S. (2019). Co-circulation of genetically distinct highly pathogenic avian influenza A clade 2.3.4.4 (H5N6) viruses in wild waterfowl and poultry in Europe and East Asia, 2017–18. Virus Evolution, 5(1), vez004. https://doi.org/10.1093/ve/vez004

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses were first introduced into Europe in late 2014 and re-introduced in late 2016, following detections in Asia and Russia. In contrast to the 2014–15 H5N8 wave, there was substantial loca... Read More about Co-circulation of genetically distinct highly pathogenic avian influenza A clade 2.3.4.4 (H5N6) viruses in wild waterfowl and poultry in Europe and East Asia, 2017–18.

Plasticity of Amino Acid Residue 145 Near the Receptor Binding Site of H3 Swine Influenza A Viruses and Its Impact on Receptor Binding and Antibody Recognition (2019)
Journal Article
Santos, J. J. S., Abente, E. J., Obadan, A. O., Thompson, A. J., Ferreri, L., Geiger, G., …Perez, D. R. (2019). Plasticity of Amino Acid Residue 145 Near the Receptor Binding Site of H3 Swine Influenza A Viruses and Its Impact on Receptor Binding and Antibody Recognition. Journal of Virology, 93(2), e01413-18. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01413-18

The hemagglutinin (HA), a glycoprotein on the surface of influenza A virus (IAV), initiates the virus life cycle by binding to terminal sialic acid (SA) residues on host cells. The HA gradually accumulates amino acid substitutions that allow IAV to e... Read More about Plasticity of Amino Acid Residue 145 Near the Receptor Binding Site of H3 Swine Influenza A Viruses and Its Impact on Receptor Binding and Antibody Recognition.

The type of adjuvant in whole inactivated influenza a virus vaccines impacts vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (2018)
Journal Article
Souza, C. K., Rajão, D. S., Sandbulte, M. R., Lopes, S., Lewis, N. S., Loving, C. L., …Vincent, A. L. (2018). The type of adjuvant in whole inactivated influenza a virus vaccines impacts vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease. Vaccine, 36(41), 6103-6110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.08.072

Influenza A virus (IAV) causes a disease burden in the swine industry in the US and is a challenge to prevent due to substantial genetic and antigenic diversity of IAV that circulate in pig populations. Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines formulat... Read More about The type of adjuvant in whole inactivated influenza a virus vaccines impacts vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease.

Avian influenza viruses in wild birds: virus evolution in a multi-host ecosystem (2018)
Journal Article
Venkatesh, D., Poen, M. J., Bestebroer, T. M., Scheuer, R. D., Vuong, O., Chkhaidze, M., …Lewis, N. S. (2018). Avian influenza viruses in wild birds: virus evolution in a multi-host ecosystem. Journal of Virology, 92, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00433-18

Wild ducks and gulls are the major reservoirs for avian influenza A viruses (AIVs). The mechanisms that drive AIV evolution are complex at sites where various duck and gull species from multiple flyways breed, winter, or stage. The Republic of Georgi... Read More about Avian influenza viruses in wild birds: virus evolution in a multi-host ecosystem.

Antigenic and genetic evolution of contemporary swine H1 influenza viruses in the United States (2018)
Journal Article
Rajao, D. S., Anderson, T. K., Kitikoon, P., Stratton, J., Lewis, N. S., & Vincent, A. L. (2018). Antigenic and genetic evolution of contemporary swine H1 influenza viruses in the United States. Virology, 518, 45-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2018.02.006

Several lineages of influenza A viruses (IAV) currently circulate in North American pigs. Genetic diversity is further increased by transmission of IAV between swine and humans and subsequent evolution. Here, we characterized the genetic and antigeni... Read More about Antigenic and genetic evolution of contemporary swine H1 influenza viruses in the United States.

The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses (2016)
Journal Article
Lewis, N. S., Russell, C. A., Langat, P., Anderson, T. K., Berger, K., Bielejec, F., …Vincent, A. L. (2016). The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses. eLife, 5, e12217. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12217

wine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introduct... Read More about The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses.